Compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail?

Compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail?

Compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail?

Compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail?


Compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail?

The every communication between two device is transmitted. Even when you send anything from one device to another device its transmitted. The way or what is used to transmit this data is called transmission medias. It might be some sort of wire like a normal copper wire or even a radio frequency signal which is transmitted through the air or now we call it wireless. The Bounded means its some sort of physical item like cable and unbounded means wireless or its transmitted on air.

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The bounded media

The Bounded media are physical cables that travel through a narrow path. It is mainly made up of external conductor such as copper and covered by a non conductive material. It is also known as wired or guided media. The Bounded transmission means having connectivity between a source and destination using a wire or cables. So in bounded media signal will be travelling through the wire to its destination. The signal will not leave, except for smaller leakage amounts in bounded media. There are 3 types of bounded media. They are coper twisted pair, copper coaxial cable and optic fiber cable.

The Copper Twisted Cable

In coper twisted pair, two insulated wires or cable will be twisted together. The coper twisted pair is also again classified into two types known as shield twisted pair (STP) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP).

The Shield Twisted Pair

The shield twisted pair or STP is cables with the techniques of shielding, cancellation, and wire twisting. In shield twisted pair or STP the twisted pair of wire will be covered or wrapped in a metallic foil. The reason for covering the twisted pair of wire is to protect the transmission line from the noises and electromagnetic interference leaking into or out of the cable. Shielded twisted pair or STP are used in places like airports where there is too much noises. The unshielded twisted pair or UTP wire are not covered or wrapped in a metallic foil.

The un-shielded twisted pair

The unshielded twisted pair wire is cheaper than the shielded twisted pair wire. The twisted pair cables are used in homes and offices as ethernet cable. These cable supports low to high data rates but are not high as optic fiber cables. Other than ethernet cables, twisted pair wire is used in telephone communications also.

The coper coaxial cable

The coper coaxial cable are the cable which has a inner conductor(D) surrounded by tubular insulting layer©, surrounding by a conducting shield(B) and there is a outer plastic shield(A). The usually inner conductor is a solid copper, stranded copper or copper plated steel wire. The coper coaxial cable has a better shielding compared to shielded twisted pair or STP. Therefore, these cable have much more noise immunity and data transmission without distortion. Other than that these cable transmit digital signal  at very high rate. This is one of the reason why coper coaxial cable is used for video transmission. The cable tv also uses this type of cable for their transmission. It is also used in long distance telephone lines also.

The Fiber Optic

macro photography of orange fiber optic lamp
Photo by Guillaume Meurice on

The optic fiber cable is similar to an electrical cable, but optic fiber cable contain one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light. The optical fiber elements are typically separately coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. The fiber optic cable has very high bandwidth more than 2 gigabytes per a second. It is used for long distance telecommunication and to provide high speed data connection. The optic fiber cable use both analog and digital signal and are not affected by electromagnetic interference, so noise and distortion will be very less. However, these cable are very expensive and difficult to repair once its broken.

The unbounded Media

antenna contact dawn dusk
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Unbounded media is in which the data transmission occurs through the air, commonly known as wireless. It is also known as un-guided or wireless media. Some example of unbounded media are microwave, radio wave, infrared waves and satellites. Microwave transmission use a transmitter and receiver with a clear path. If the path is not clear means it cant transmit data. Some times due to heavy rain and wind also it cant transmit data. But in radio transmission line of sight or clear sight is not necessary because radio waves can pass through the buildings. Infrared wave uses infrared light wave to transmit signal and can be blocked by hand or objects. Most type of remotes uses Infrared waves to transmit signal. The satellite transmission uses satellites to transmit signal. There are many satellites around a planet in a elliptical path.

Lets compare and contrast the bounded and unbounded transmission medias in detail 

Now that you have understood what is bounded and unbounded transmission media’s, lets put some point out some important details

  • Bounded media’s are physical wires
  • Unbounded media’s are wireless
  • Bounded media’s include copper twisted pair cables and fiber optic cables
  • Unbounded media’s include radio transmissions and satellite

Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible?

Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible

Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible

If you are a business or tech person, ecommerce is thing you have to bother in your career. As the internet have expanded, so does the e-commerce. As of now people differentiate the categories of e-commerce in to 6 types. In this tutorial, I will try my best to Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible. Also check out Merits and Demerits of E-commerce

There are 6 basic types of e-commerce:

· Business-to-Business (B2B)

o   The e-commerce between two or more business. We can also that when one company sell or buy products from another company.

· Business-to-Consumer (B2C)

o   This is the most common type of e-commerce. It is between The company and their consumers.

· Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)

o   This is also a common type of e-commerce as the e-commerce is between consumers.

· Consumer-to-Business (C2B).

o   Some times Consumers are also selling items to the companies. That is known as Consumer to Business.

· Business-to-Administration (B2A)

o   This is when a company sell or buys products from the government.

· Consumer-to-Administration (C2A)

o   This is like applying for police report online. A consumer is going to get a service from government.



Now lets Identify these websites belongs to which category of E-commerce why?


o   Business to Business


o   Business to Consumer


o   Customer to Customer


o   Business to Government


o   Consumer to Government

Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible

The above have explained the categories of e-commerce in shortest way possible, But lets summarize what we have covered so far. There are 6 types of e-commerce categories. They are business to business (B2B),  Business to consumer (B2C), Consumer to consumer (C2C), Consumer to business (C2B), Business to administration (B2A) and Consumer to administration (C2A). Now lets have a clear meaning of these terms we used
  • Business
    • The company or a registered business
  • Consumer
    • The end user or the normal people who use the service
  • Administration
    • Government

Explain merits and Demerits of E-commerce?

Merits and Demerits of E-commerce
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on

Merits and Demerits of E-commerce

Like anything E-commerce also have its merits (advantages) and Demerits (disadvantages). This tutorial will look in to details of these advantages and dis advantages. When we compare the merits and demerits of e-commerce, I believe merits would be more than demerits. Buts lets discuss the merits and demerits of E-Commerce. If I miss any important point, ensure to comment it below on this post, so we all can learn together.

While you are browsing about merits and demerits of e-commerce, also do check Explained the categories of E-commerce in shortest way possible?

Merits of E-commerce

E-commerce is like shopping online. E-commerce’s merits or advantages can be classified into three main categories. They are Advantages to consumer, Advantages to organization and advantages to society.

Merits (Advantages) to Organization

The advantages to organization of e-commerce include reducing the operational cost of the organization. Your organization does not need a showroom and more employees for the e-commerce. Other than that, e-commerce help organization to improve the brand image of the company. You can also attract more customers in e-commerce due to the easy process of e-commerce. You can purchase items by staying at home by just a few clicks.

Merits (Advantages) to Consumer

The best benefit for the customers of e-commerce is the 24/7 support. You do not need to wait for a specific time. You can always ask question about the product you want and get instant feedback. Customers also can easily find alternative products and compare the products they want in simple steps. This helps customers to get the best available product. Furthermore, customers can give review about the products they purchase and see the rating of the product, that you are going to purchase. E-commerce has increased the competition among the organization. As a result customers are getting huge discount on the products.

Merits (Advantages) to Society

Some of other advantage of e-commerce include 24/7 selling and buying service. You can access the e-commerce website at any time and place your order. As e-commerce does not require a physical company setup, It is easy to start and manage the business. Customers can easily select different products from different companies without moving around physically. This means that overcrowdings on the roads will decrease. Which surely will have a impact on transitive diseases.

The Demerits of E-Commerce

The demerits of e-commerce include that anyone can start a e-commerce websites. There are some e-commerce websites that eats up their customers money without providing the service. Some of the products are very fake and is difficult to understand what is fake and what is good. As it is a online process, there are hackers who hack the payment gateways. There is a high chance that some of the e-commerce websites are used in phishing also.

The same way Demerits of E-Commerce will also have huge impacts on Society and Organization and even to consumer. But we need weigh the pros are cons of E-Commerce for themselves.

Explain any three latest trends in information technology?

Explain any three latest trends in information technology

Explain any three latest trends in information technology?

Explain any three latest trends in information technology?

            Information Technology is a huge word and the easiest way to define information technology is by saying that it is a study or use of systems for storing, retrieving, and sending information. We can also say that it is exchanging of electronic data. In this modern world there are new invention and modern trends in information technology. Some of the latest trends in information technology includes cloud computing, Artificial Intelligence, 5G proliferation, quantum computing, Drones, Mobile computing and application and Automation. So let me explain any three latest trends in information technology?

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Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing means using a network to send and receive files. With the help of cloud computing users can use application or links to store and send files by using internet. The top benefits of cloud computing include the cost. Mostly if you need to store data means you need to purchase a storage device. But you can use cloud computing for free of charge using some websites like google drive or mega. Other than that if you are using cloud computing means that files can be easy accessed over any part in the world. It also offers protection from potential threads and makes data backup when needed. The perfect example that of cloud computing we use in our daily life is emails and google drive.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. The fifth generation computers are also based on artificial intelligence. The device which use artificial intelligence include speech recognition and do tasks automatically. The robots also use artificial intelligence. Nowadays most common program that use artificial intelligence is siri and Alexa. These apps or device will perform task after listening to what you said and based on that.

The Famous 5G

5G is also known as the fifth generation of mobile network. 5G supports the speed of downloading 20 gigabytes per second. It is the latest generation of mobile network yet. 5G will not only interconnect people but also it will deliver new levels of performance and efficiency that will empower new user experiences and connect new industries. 5G uses better spectrum compare to 4G and it also has low latency. 5G support new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT.

Quantum Computing

All the computer will be storing and manipulating information. The Current computers are storing and manipulating individual bits, which stores information as 0 and 1. Quantum computers leverage quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate information. To do this, they rely on quantum bits, or qubits. They use three quantum mechanical properties known as superposition, entanglement, and interference to manipulate the state of the qubit. The speed of these quantum will be very fast. It is said that Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object’s state before it is measured.


Drone is basically a kind of a mini aircraft which has multiple purpose. It is used in photography as well as in military. Some of the scene of famous movies are shot using drones. The drones used to capture photo or video contain camera on the drone itself. Drones can be controlled remotely. In military there are drones which used to bomb places in war. These drones carry bomb to specific location and detonate the bomb. There are some drones which can lock a target and move towards to the target. Drones are also used in surveillance. People are tracked using facial recognition with the help of drones in seconds.

Last Words

Latest trends in technology also brings a huge impact on mobile applications. Now with the help of AngularJS you can use html and JavaScript to build hybrid mobile application. After the release of angular there has been a huge increase in number of apps in stores. It is developed by google and maintained by community of individual people.

Discuss about the importance of IT in business, education and entertainment?


What is information technology or IT

Information technology or IT is also known as the Information Service or Management Information Service. Information Technology is defined as the development, design, study, implementation and management of computer related information’s. In the era of 1920s and 1970s, information technology was limited. At that time banking sector, mathematical engineers, and computer scientists only use Informational technology. But now everyone and every organization use informational technology daily. So lets discuss about the importance of IT in business, education and entertainment.

Importance of IT in business, education and entertainment

Nowadays, it is very important to use IT in Business, Education and Entertainment. We can say that every organization use It these days. The reason behind this is because it saves their time and gives you an edge. It allows the organization to work more efficiently and maximize the productivity, which results in a higher profit. Not only the businesses use IT, Education sector also use the information technology. Due to IT, Education has improved over the years. These days students need not to attend school for education. It can be done using online, with or without the teacher. If we heard about entertainment, these days, it will include information technology. All most all activities need information technology in this modern world.

Importance of IT in Business

Even, if your business is small or big, information technology has its important effects on your business operations. It will help you to reach your customers expectation easily. The main role of information technology in business is to provide a faster communication with customers. Customers can get answers to their question through the business website or using the instant messaging. You can order the products you want to buy through online and save a lot of time. Other important effect of information technology in business is the fast shipment option. This option allows customers to get their products delivered quicker by paying some extra cash. This results in getting more income to the business and expanding their business to the world. The advertisement can be easily created and spread over the world through the Information Technology. Information technology also help business to understand and keep records of their cash flow and inventory. They can easily manage and identify the inventory over internet. Same way, senior employees can conduct meeting through online and save their precious time. Furthermore, information technology gives extra security to your business. You can see your employees work in real time and secure your stores with CCTV. This will prevent theft and robbery in business.


Importance of IT in Education    

Information technology also plays important role in education. The teachers use power point slides, instead of using black or white board, to teach the students. This helps students to focus more on what’s teaching, and easily understand and recall things they have studied. Power Point presentations also give you graphic content such as diagram, charts and images. We can access the research of different people in the world, because of information technology. The printed notes, that teachers use are also brought by information technology. Information technology also helps students and administration to keep a record of all students in classrooms. The application such as google classroom help teachers and students in creating, distributing, and grading assignments in a paperless way.  It also enables the file sharing between students and teachers. Students these days did not carry books to school. They use digital books which makes education more fun and easier.

Importance of IT in entertainment            

At the beginning of 2000, new devices which can be used for entertaining was introduced. These devices such as PSP can be used to play game and some devices are like video players, which can be used for watching movies. One of the devices which everyone, used for entertaining is smartphone, which is also introduced in late 1990s. Smartphone can be used for almost all purposes regarding information technology.

I do always believe that information technology is an essential item in todays world. Everything is controlled by information technology. It will surely gives you an edge on everything you do in your life.